Rotors
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(All rotor assemblies share the familiar drum or disc shape which houses the rotor itself)

Also known as Flywheel Energy Rotors or Compulsators. In the most basic sense, any device that uses conservation of angular momentum (spinning) to conserve energy. By the 46th century the technology has become so successful that it has almost completely replaced alternatives such as batteries and fuel cells. The efficiency of the rotor, and the total amount of power it can safely hold, is directly proportional to a civilization's material science. A stronger disc will be able to hold more momentum before it fails. Rotors are not a source of energy though, they can only store it; as such they are often used in tandem with a more powerful primary energy source such as a fusion reactor or a solar array.

In Spacecrafts & Space Stations

When aboard an object in free-fall and when spinning fast enough (i.e. When holding a lot of energy) rotors can act as gyroscopes that can be tilted in such a way to function as attitude control systems. These are advantages compared to conventional plasma thrusters in that they require no propellant, and often they require little energy to be spun up because they are already partly charged. These sort of flywheels are often nicknamed “Anchors” because they not only help the ship manoeuvre, they can also help it stay steady.

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In Surface Installations & Arrays

Rotors (especially those utilizing vacuum and electromagnetic components) can be spun up and discharged very quickly with little losses. They are often used to convert a slow stream of power (such as wind, solar, or hydro) into shorter rapid bursts of power that then go on to fuel laser systems or mass drivers.

Miniaturization

Though traditionally used for bulky vehicles and large installations rotor power has been sufficiently miniaturized to be used in hand-held devices, often supplying very high energy demands such as those seen in laser rifles or gauss guns. The primary risk in miniaturization lies in thinning the protective casing. In the event of a failure, all the energy contained within the disc is discharged instantly, usually in the form of heat and shrapnel. Thus, again, material science becomes the limiting factor. A strong, light, portable material is needed to safely hold the wheel.

Mellaiic Superconductors

In 2454, while most of humanity was still recovering from the effects of the Enlightenment, scientists continued to work on furthering human kind's knowledge and discovered a new meta-material based on copper ions in a carbon matrix. Named after the team's lead scientist, Mellaiic materials were soon found to have their resistance drop as they were rotated. The faster they would spin, the more superconductive they became.

The copper composite was originally quite brittle though, and it took extensive research and development before it could be applied in high speed rotors. But eventually hybrid rotors were perfected that could store vast quantities of both kinetic and electrical energy.