In modern physics there are multiple concepts of space utilized in common parlance. Space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. It is both intangible and tangible in the form of a dimension and the form of the physical universe: so-called 'real space'.

The distinction between spacetime - the dimension of space and it's related concept of time - and real space cannot be overstated. Real space can be thought of as the 'void' between galaxies, stars, and planets that is traditionally held as being void of form or substance. Real space is the inhabited portion of the universe.

Spacetime, on the other hand, can be observed but not directly experienced.

Real Space

Newtonian Space

Also referred to as 'n-space', Newtonian space concerns the compositions and distances we are accustomed to, and also makes up the densest type of space. Early cosmologists theorized that space was a perfect vacuum. As studies continued it was determined that this was not the case and that a very thin 'atmosphere' exists.

The constituent particles of space were thought to consist largely of hydrogen, ejected by the solar winds of stars and other various gas remnants (such as those found in nebulae) from assorted cosmological phenomenon. It is now known that as much as 90% (or more) of space is composed of dark matter.

This theory first came into traditional academia in the early 21st century.

Because of the relative influence of dark matter and spacetime on the universe, n-space is also called 'local space' as it pertains solely to the space immediately surrounding the observer. The terminus of n-space has never been conclusively decided but is thought to extend several light seconds in every direction.

Within n-space most energy and matter behaves in a predictable manner. An observer can rely upon Newtonian Laws of Physics to calculate the outcome of any action to it's end result. The only deviations expected are those of man made or naturally occurring forces (all of which can be provided for in calculations).

Einsteinian Space

'E-space' is the concept of space well beyond distances fully understandable by most sentient minds. This form of space, while consisting of the same stuff as all real space, is differentiated due to the Laws of Special Relativity and their impact on any observation made at such great distances and masses.

Terms such as 'Einsteinian' and 'relative' are interchangeable in this case. Special relativity was put forward as a theory by Albert Einstein, a 20th century physicist. It's core tenants were then shaped into natural laws by intellectual successors over the next several centuries which today govern a large chunk of theoretical physics.

Particularly because space is not empty, rather merely formless, there are many forces at work. The relative position of the observer in space influences how a phenomena is viewed, thus rendering most end results difficult or impossible to predict thanks in no small part to unobservable factors between the two.

The entire universe outside of a handful of light seconds from the observer is e-space. E-space can also be considered any space that can not reasonably be traversed via common locomotive or propulsive techniques. Thus, the distance between star systems is certainly referred to as e-space or relative space.

Kraussian Space

The idea of Kraussian, or 'k-space', concerns the portions of space defined by quantum physics. While this does deal with things such as holes in space (black and worm holes, for example) it does not encompass the ideas of any other kind of space, though one could argue the universe is a product of quantum physics.

K-space is fundamentally the space between atoms and molecules, as well as the space between individual organic cells. Anything occurring at the k-space level cannot be observed directly and requires specialized optical equipment. A rare few species may have the ability to focus their eyesight to such a degree.

More specifically, k-space is any space in which light travels and no measurable time lapse has occurred, except on an infinitesimal level. At this scale all actions and reactions can be predicted with very little error though it is difficult to observe some interactions on the quantum scale, thus seeming unpredictable.

Kraussian space is named for the 21st century physicist Lawrence Krauss.

Hawking Space

Any activity occurring within Hawking space is said to occur 'outside' of real space. That is, within the realms of sub- or supraspace, both of which exist within the various holes of the universe. The interior of a black hole is termed subspace as it is composed of all the building blocks of the universe in a single point.

On the other hand, supraspace is found inside white and worm holes, which are known to exist as a natural mechanic of vacuum energy. Though neither exist for more than a few seconds in nature, worm holes can and have been stimulated by outside means, though the precise forces required remains elusive.

Experiments in stellar laboratories have enabled scientists of several cultures to stimulate worm holes and then hold them open. Human science has even achieved the literal widening of a worm hole from the quantum scale to the observable scale. Hawking space is highly energetic and composed of exotic particles.

Particles which are not known to exist in nature and the origin of which is unknown.

To date, the largest 'Hawking envelope' ever created encompassed the area of a large spacecraft, but it's mass was unmeasurable. It was theorized to be several trillion tons total. It is notable in that this mass equated to roughly half of all human biomass in the entire galaxy and known universe. It is still being studied.